2.3.3.1 Landscape classification


2.3.3.1.1 Methodology

The Clarence-Moreton bioregion is one of the most biologically diverse regions in Australia. It includes the ‘Macleay–McPherson Overlap’, an area where a combination of climate and geography have resulted in the co-occurrence of both temperate and tropical species and a substantial number of regionally endemic species (Burbidge, 1960). The Great Dividing Range runs along the length of the bioregion, providing steep escarpments and fertile valleys and floodplains as rivers start in the mountains and meander across the valleys to discharge at the coast.

The Clarence-Moreton bioregion contains diverse assets that span ecological, sociocultural and economic values (see companion product 1.3 for the Clarence-Moreton bioregion (Murray et al., 2015)). A landscape classification system was developed to categorise the nature of water dependency among this diverse range of assets, based on key landscape properties associated with geology, geomorphology, hydrology and vegetation (both natural and modified ecosystems). Thus, the primary objective of the landscape classification is to present a conceptualisation of the main biophysical and human systems at the surface and describe their hydrological connectivity in relation to how they utilise surrounding water sources. Assets can then be assessed and grouped based on functional criteria depending on their association with a particular landscape class (i.e. landscape classes to which they belong). The term ‘landscape class’ used in this context, represents landscape features classified in a systematic manner and assembled into groups that are indicative of their hydrological connectivity to key groundwater and surface water flow systems. The following section describes the methodology and datasets used to arrive at the landscape classification for ecosystems within the PAE of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion.

There are many different classification and landscape class methodologies which have been developed to provide consistent and functionally relevant representations of ecosystems (e.g. the Australian National Aquatic Ecosystem (ANAE) Classification Framework (AETG, 2012)). Currently, only the Queensland section of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion has a framework in place. Where appropriate, the approach outlined in this product has built on, and integrated these existing classification systems to incorporate the whole bioregion. The process of devising and implementing a landscape classification for the PAE of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion predominantly involved using geology as a basis combined with terrain, hydrology and vegetation. The landscape classification was derived from existing data layers consisting of polygons (e.g. vegetation, terrestrial/surface groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) or wetlands), lines (stream network) and points (springs, waterholes and waterfalls), thus producing a polygon dataset output.

2.3.3.1.1.1 Classification of landscape features (represented by polygon base data)

The approach taken was formulated in close collaboration with several experts from the WetlandInfo team (2013) within the Queensland Government who had extensive experience with the landscapes of the Clarence‑Moreton bioregion PAE and had input into developing similar classification systems such as the ANAE (Aquatic Ecosystems Task Group, 2012). Landscape classes were derived from spatial analysis using geographic information system (GIS) software. The input datasets and rule sets used to analyse the polygon layers for this component of the classification are given in Table 3.

Geology is the most important characteristic in landscape development in the Clarence‑Moreton bioregion. The surface geology of the bioregion can be classified into four regional types: (i) fractured igneous rock (Section 2.3.2.2.6), (ii) consolidated sedimentary rock (Section 2.3.2.2.7), (iii) unconsolidated sediments – alluvium (Section 2.3.2.2.4) and (iv) unconsolidated sediments – estuarine (Section 2.3.2.2.5).

The fractured rock occurs in the steep escarpment mainly along the Queensland–NSW border within the bioregion. The consolidated sedimentary rock covers the rest of the bioregion except where it is covered by the alluvium associated with hydrological features and floodplains or the estuarine sediments along the coast. The broad geological classification divides the PAE according to Queensland’s pre-clearing remnant vegetation (Queensland Herbarium, Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts, Dataset 1) with the associated landzone classes and NSW Mitchell landscapes (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Dataset 2). Both datasets were reclassified by a geologist to conform to the four identified geology types.

Terrain exerts a strong influence on morphology, flow patterns and associated biota. The slope thresholds from the ANAE for the Murray–Darling Basin, based on the Stein Index (Brooks et al., 2014), were used to determine the four terrain types: (i) lowland, (ii) low energy upland, (iii) high energy upland and (iv) transitional environments.

Hydrological features (other than landscape classes ‘Waterfalls’, ‘Springs and waterholes’) were classified into landscape classes according to their geology type, position in the terrain and whether they were a moving or still body of water as well as their permanency. The ‘Waterfalls’ and ‘Springs and waterholes’ landscape classes were classified as such, regardless of terrain or geology characteristics.

Modified landscapes are mostly cleared of natural vegetation and are used for agricultural or other anthropogenic purposes. These were classified into three modified landscape types: (i) dryland agriculture or (ii) irrigated agriculture (based on the most recent land use data (BRS, 2009; DSITIA, 2014)); and (iii) urban.

Natural vegetation areas were delineated into seven vegetation types (‘Major Vegetation Group’ according to NVIS4 (Dataset 5)), based on structure (especially height and cover), growth form and floristic composition (vascular plant species) in the dominant stratum of each vegetation type (Department of the Environment and Water Resources, 2007). Delineation was also made between wet and dry sclerophyll forest.

Landscape classes defined for modified and urban landscapes and natural vegetation areas were determined independent of terrain and geology characteristics.

All landscape classes within the natural vegetation areas and modified landscapes contain groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs). GDEs access groundwater on a permanent or intermittent basis (DSITIA, 2015). They occur within the main landscape classes, where groundwater is close enough to the surface to be accessible. Mapped GDEs for the CLM were obtained from both states (Bioregional Assessment Programme, Dataset 6, Dataset 7). These datasets were derived using the GDE mapping assessment guidelines suggested in the national GDE toolbox (Richardson et al., 2011a, 2011b). Mapping of GDEs has underlying assumptions built on expert knowledge and data where possible. The south-east Queensland mapping has a confidence rating for accuracy of the GDE location and the precent area covered (WetlandInfo, 2012). Therefore, we considered the GDE mapping as indicative only, with confidence that a GDE occurs in that location but the boundary line between GDE and non-GDE areas may be subjective. Further checking will always improve the accuracy of the GDE maps.

Groundwater dependency was determined by the spatial intersection of GDE polygons in the water-dependent asset register with the vegetation landscape classes, thus resulting in an associated GDE landscape sub-class for each modified landscape and vegetation landscape class.

Derivation of landscape classes was essentially a process of joining different input datasets to create an output polygon dataset representing all landscape classes. Decisions were made at different points during the process about simplification of data (e.g. merging of small splinter polygons into larger neighbouring classes), prioritisation of landscape classes when there was overlap of two or more classes, and improvement of data. Improvement of data (e.g. to code missing areas or re-code existing attributes) relied on the use of supplementary contextual data – maps, satellite imagery, reports or other ‘contextual’ datasets. Improvement was necessary particularly when defining the polygon water regime classes, where features and/or attributes within Dataset 4 (Bioregional Assessment Programme, Dataset 4) did not adequately cover all relevant aquatic features. The decision about how to proceed in these instances was based on an understanding of the quality of the input data (spatial accuracy, spatial resolution, attribute accuracy, currency) combined with an understanding both of the requirements of the output land classification for subsequent receptor analysis and of the Clarence-Moreton PAE landscape.

Table 3 Classification rule sets used for the polygon layers in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion

Each query discretises the listed dataset into the relevant classification type.


Landscape classification

driver

Type

Relevant dataset citation

Dataset (field)a

GIS querya, b, c

Geology

Fractured rock

Dataset 1

Dataset 2

Qld_RE_13 (LANDZONE)

NSW_Mitchell_Landscapes_v3

(Lscape_Nam)

If LANDZONE = (8 – Cenozoic igneous rock OR 11 – Metamorphic Rock) OR Lscape_Nam = (Baryulgil ultramafics OR

Flat top basalts OR

Lamington volcanic slopes OR

Mount Warning plugs OR

Nimbin ridges OR

Woodenbong syenite plugs); ‘Geology’ = ‘Fractured rock’

Consolidated sedimentary rock

Dataset 1

Dataset 2

Qld_RE_13 (LANDZONE)

NSW_Mitchell_Landscapes_v3

(Lscape_Nam)

If LANDZONE = 9-10 – Fine and coarse grained sedimentary rock OR Lscape_Nam = (Clarence-Manning basin margin OR Clarence foothills OR

Grafton-Whipone basin OR

Mount Warning exhumed slopes OR

Nymboidea great escarpment OR

Nymboidea meta-sediments OR

Richmond range OR

Summervale range); ‘Geology’ = ‘Consolidated sedimentary rock’

Alluvium

Dataset 1

Dataset 2

Qld_RE_13 (LANDZONE)

NSW_Mitchell_Landscapes_v3

(Lscape_Nam)

If LANDZONE = (3 – Recent Quaternary alluvial system OR

5 – Tertiary early Quaternary loamy & sandy plains and plateaus) OR Lscape_Nam = (Byron-Tweed alluvial plains OR

Clarence-Richmond alluvial plains OR

Manning-Macleay coastal alluvial OR

Upper Clarence channels & floodplains; ‘Geology’ = ‘Alluvium’

Estuarine

Dataset 1

Dataset 2

Qld_RE_13 (LANDZONE)

NSW_Mitchell_Landscapes_v3

(Lscape_Nam)

If LANDZONE = 1 – Deposits subject to periodic tidal inundation OR Lscape_Nam = (Ballina coastal ramp OR

Brooms Head-Kempsey coastal ramp OR

Clarence-Richmond barriers and beaches OR Estuary/water added OR

Manning-Macleay barriers and beaches); ‘Geology’ = ‘Estuarine’

Terrain

Lowland

Dataset 3

Stein Index Classification for Streams National 20150513 (Value)

If ‘Value’ = 1 (mrVBF* > 3); ‘Terrain’ = ‘Lowland’

Transitional

Dataset 3

Stein Index Classification for Streams National 20150513 (Value)

If ‘Value’ = 2 (mrVBF* >=2.5 AND mrVBF<=3); ‘Terrain’ = ‘Transitional’

Low energy upland

Dataset 3

Stein Index Classification for Streams National 20150513 (Value)

If ‘Value’ = 3 (mrVBF* <2.5 AND mrRTF >2.5); ‘Terrain’ = ‘Low energy upland’

High energy upland

Dataset 3

Stein Index Classification for Streams National 20150513 (Value)

If ‘Value’ = 4 (mrVBF* < 2.5 AND mrRTF <= 2.5); ‘Terrain’ = ‘High energy upland’

Water regime

Floodplain

Dataset 4

CLM_geofab_waterbody_wetlandinfo (FLOODPLAIN, WETCLASS)

If ‘FLOODPLAIN = ‘F’ AND NOT (‘WETCLASS’ = ‘L’ OR ‘E’ OR P’) with contextual information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Floodplain’

Floodplain lake

Dataset 4

CLM_geofab_waterbody_wetlandinfo (FLOODPLAIN, WETCLASS, SrcFCName)

If (‘FLOODPLAIN = ‘F’ AND ‘WETCLASS’ = ‘L’) OR (‘SrcFCName’ = ‘Lakes’ with visual inspection using Dataset 2 to recode some of these features to ‘floodplain lake’) with contextual information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Floodplain lake’

Artificial reservoir

Dataset 4

CLM_geofab_waterbody_wetlandinfo (HYDROMOD_L, SrcFCName)

If (‘HYDROMOD_L’ = ‘artificial wetlands – dams, ringtanks’ OR ‘modified – dams or weirs’) OR “SrcFCName” = ‘Reservoirs’ with contextual information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Artificial reservoir’

Non-floodplain lake

Dataset 4

CLM_geofab_waterbody_wetlandinfo (WETCLASS, FLOODPLAIN, SrcFCName)

If [‘WETCLASS’ = ‘L’ AND NOT (‘FLOODPLAIN’ = ‘F’)] OR (‘SrcFCName’ = ‘Lakes’ with visual inspection using Dataset 2 to recode some of these features to ‘Non-floodplain lake’) with contextual information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Non-floodplain lake’

Floodplain swamp

Dataset 4

CLM_geofab_waterbody_wetlandinfo (FLOODPLAIN, WETCLASS, HAB_L)

If ‘FLOODPLAIN’ = ‘F’ AND (WETCLASS = ‘E’ OR ‘P’) AND ‘HAB_L’ = ‘Coastal/ Sub-coastal floodplain tree swamps (Melaleuca and Eucalypt)’ with contextual information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘ Floodplain swamp’

Non-floodplain swamp

Dataset 4

CLM_geofab_waterbody_wetlandinfo (FLOODPLAIN, SrcFType, HAB_L)

If ‘FLOODPLAIN’ = NOT ‘F’ AND (SrcFType = ‘swamp’) AND ‘HAB_L’ = ‘Coastal/ Sub-coastal non-floodplain grass, sedge and herb swamps’ with contextual information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Non-floodplain swamp’

Vegetation

Rainforest

Dataset 5

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘MVG_NAME’ = ‘Rainforests and Vine Thickets’; ’Vegetation’ = ‘Rainforest’

Open forest

(wet sclerophyll forest)

Dataset 5

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘MVG_NAME’ = ‘Eucalypt Tall Open Forests’; ’Vegetation’ = ‘Open forest

(wet sclerophyll forest)’

Woodland

(dry sclerophyll forest)

Dataset 5

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘MVG_NAME’ = ‘Eucalypt Open Forests/Eucalypt Low Open Forests/Eucalypt Woodlands/Acacia Forests and woodlands/Callitris Forests and woodlands’; ’Vegetation’ = ‘Woodland (dry sclerophyll forest)’

Shrubland

Dataset 5

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘MVG_NAME’ = ‘Acacia Shrublands/Other Shrublands/ Heathlands/Chenopod Shrublands/Samphire Shrublands and Forblands’; ’Vegetation’ = ‘Shrubland’

Grassland

Dataset 5

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘MVG_NAME’ = ‘Tussock grasslands/Other Grasslands/Herblands/Sedgelands and Rushlands’; ’Vegetation’ = ‘Grassland’

Mangrove

Dataset 5

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘MVG_NAME’ = ‘Mangroves’; ‘Vegetation’ = ‘Mangrove’

Groundwater- dependent ecosystems

Dataset 6

Southeast Queensland GDE surface areas (GDE_TYPE)

Southeast Queensland GDE terrestrial areas (GDE_TYPE)

If ‘GDE_TYPE’ = ‘SURFACE EXPRESSION’ OR ‘GDE_TYPE’ = ‘TERRESTRIAL G’; ‘GDE’ = ‘SURFACE EXPRESSION’ OR ‘TERRESTRIAL G’

Dataset 7

NSW Northern Rivers GDE (Type)

If ‘Type’ = ‘Terrestrial’ OR ‘Type’ = ‘Wetland’; ‘GDE’ = ‘Terrestrial’ OR ‘Wetland’

ELSE NULL

Modified landscape

Dryland agriculture

Dataset 8

Basin Scale Land Use of Australia - 2014 (Primary_v7)

If ‘Primary_V7’ = ‘Production from dryland agriculture and plantations’; ‘Vegetation’ = ‘Dryland agriculture’

Irrigated agriculture

Dataset 8

Basin Scale Land Use of Australia - 2014 (Primary_v7)

If ‘Primary_V7’ = ‘Production from irrigated agriculture and plantations’; ‘Irrigated agriculture’ = ‘Production from irrigated agriculture and plantations’

Urban

Dataset 9

GEODATA TOPO 250k Series 3 – BuiltUpAreas (FEATURETYPE)

If ‘FEATURETYPE’ = ‘Built Up Area’ AND visual analysis of more recent data indicates urban areas; ‘Urban’= ‘Urban’

Other

Other

If NOT any other class

aGIS = geographic information system

bPunctuation and typography used as in the dataset

cTerms refer to attribute column headings and attributes within the relevant GIS dataset(s)

mrVBF* = multi-resolution valley bottom flatness; mrRTF = multi-resolution ridge top flatness ; GDE = groundwater-dependent ecosystem

2.3.3.1.1.2 Classification of watercourses (represented by line-based data)

The approach to classifying watercourses in the PAE broadly focused on whether or not they were streams or rivers. The watercourses were primarily based on the Bureau of Meteorology’s Geofabric cartographic mapping of river channels derived from 1:250,000 topographic maps (Bureau of Meteorology, Dataset 10). The Geofabric is a purpose-built geographic information system (GIS) that maps Australian rivers and streams and identifies their hydrologic connections. Detailed descriptions of the Geofabric can be found in the Geofabric product guide (Bureau of Meteorology, 2012). The water regime of the Geofabric watercourses was defined according to their hierarchy – either as ‘river’ (hierarchy ‘major’) or ‘stream’ (hierarchy ‘minor’). The major hierarchy relates to large in-channel bodies of moving water, including large anabranching systems that are mostly perennial. Minor hierarchy streams are smaller in-channel bodies of moving water, including creeks, and are tributaries or distributaries of a river. They can be ephemeral in nature (Brooks et al., 2014).

Rivers were further classed as ‘tidal river’ with upstream tidal limits based on information derived from relevant published reports (Department of Natural Resources, 2006; Middelmann et al., 2000; Gold Coast City Council (n.d.); Anorov, 2004).

The Geofabric watercourse mapping is a line dataset. As part of the process to derive the output landscape classes, all Geofabric watercourses were buffered by 0.5 m on either side of the watercourse (i.e. a total of 1 m). This did not adequately represent the true extent of some watercourses – particularly estuaries and wide rivers. Accordingly, the estuary watercourses were broadened to reflect their real extent as defined in Dataset 5 (Department of the Environment, Dataset 5), where NVIS4_1 dataset classes were ‘sea and estuaries’ and ‘inland aquatic – freshwater, salt lakes, lagoons’ and where these waterbodies were not already captured in the aquatic classes defined in Table 3.

The differentiation between freshwater streams and rivers served, in part, to acknowledge the hierarchical differences in geomorphological and ecological processes within main channel depositional zones as opposed to smaller tributary systems. These rivers and streams were further differentiated from estuarine watercourses, to reflect major functional differences in hydrological processes and ecological functions (Table 4).

Table 4 Classification rule sets used for the line layers in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Classification

Hydrological type

Relevant dataset citation

Dataset (field)a

Querya

Water regime

Stream

Dataset 10

SH_Cartography_GDB (Hierarchy)

If ‘Hierarchy’ = Minor; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Stream’

River

Dataset 10

Dataset 5

SH_Cartography_GDB (Hierarchy)

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘Hierarchy’ = Major AND ‘MVG_NAME’ =

(‘sea and estuaries’ OR ‘inland aquatic – freshwater, salt lakes, lagoons’) AND NOT another aquatic waterbody class; ‘Water regime’ = ‘River’

Tidal river

Dataset10

Dataset 5

SH_Cartography_GDB (Hierarchy)

NVIS4_1 (MVG_NAME)

If ‘Hierarchy’ = Major AND ‘MVG_NAME’ =

(‘sea and estuaries’ OR ‘inland aquatic – freshwater, salt lakes, lagoons’) AND NOT another aquatic waterbody class AND ‘tidal’ according to published information; ‘Water regime’ = ‘Tidal river’

aPunctuation and typography used as in the dataset

2.3.3.1.1.3 Classification of springs, waterholes and waterfalls (represented by point-based data)

In the absence of adequate spatial datasets defining the location of springs, waterholes and waterfalls, these were classified based on their occurrence in the water-dependent asset register (see companion product 1.3 for the Clarence-Morton bioregion (Murray et al., 2015)) (Table 5). Processing of all points included buffering to 0.5 m (1 m diameter).

Table 5 Classification rule sets used for the point layer in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Classification

Types

Relevant dataset citation

Dataset (field)a

Querya

Water regime

Springs and waterholes; Waterfalls

Dataset 11

Asset register (Group, Class)

If ‘Group’ = ‘Ecological’ AND ‘Class’ = (‘Marsh, sedgeland, bog, spring or soak’ OR ‘Waterhole, pool, rockpool or billabong’)

aPunctuation and typography used as in the dataset

2.3.3.1.1.4 Distribution of landscape classes

Thirty-five landscape classes were defined for the PAE of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion (Table 6 and Table 7). For the water regime classes (other than ‘Springs and waterholes; waterfalls’), these landscape classes are a function of the four geological types and the four terrain types defined in Table 3, resulting in 24 landscape classes. The importance of geology as the main landscape-forming driver is discussed in the geology section (see Section 2.3.2.2) and Section 2.3.3.1.1 . Most of the PAE (60.4%) is a modified landscape with by far the largest landscape class being ‘Dryland agriculture’ (57.5%) (Table 6). Natural vegetation landscape classes and associated GDEs cover 37.8% of the PAE, with ‘Woodland’ being the largest of these (23.3%), followed by ‘Open forest’ (8.0%) and ‘Rainforest’ (5.2%) (Figure 30 and Figure 31). Meaningful comparisons between total areas of hydrological landscape derived from line and point input datasets (‘Stream’, ‘River’, ‘Tidal river’, ‘Waterfalls’, and ‘Springs and waterholes’ landscape classes) cannot be made, as their mapped area is not a true representation of their actual size (a feature of the processing methodology, as outlined in the previous section). However, Table 7 provides length attributes for the landscape classes based on linear features (rivers, streams).

Table 6 Area and percentage representation of landscape classes across the preliminary assessment extent (PAE) of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion – non-river and non-stream landscape classes only


Landscape class number

Landscape class name

Total land area

(ha)

Percentage of PAE

(%)

1

All geology, all terrain, artificial reservoir

1,938.7

0.1%

2

Alluvium, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp

9,907.7

0.4%

5

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, floodplain

30.5

0.0%

6

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, floodplain lake

246.4

0.0%

9

Alluvium, lowland or transitional, floodplain swamp

5,480.0

0.2%

10

Alluvium, lowland, floodplain lake

1,011.6

0.0%

11

Alluvium, lowland, non-floodplain lake

46.8

0.0%

16

Consolidated sedimentary, lowland or transitional, non-floodplain swamp

295.6

0.0%

18

Estuarine, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp

3,467.1

0.2%

21

Estuarine, lowland, floodplain lake

4,715.0

0.2%

25

Waterfalls

0.0

0.0%a

26

Springs and waterholes

0.1

0.0%a

27

Dryland agriculture

1,206,645.6

54.7%

27a

Dryland agriculture GDE

47,566.7

2.2%

28

Grassland

4,504.5

0.2%

28a

Grassland GDE

6,585.2

0.3%

29

Irrigated agriculture

34,545.0

1.6%

29a

Irrigated agriculture GDE

1,245.8

0.1%

30

Mangrove

239.3

0.0%

30a

Mangrove GDE

132.9

0.0%

31

Open forest

163,369.4

7.4%

31a

Open forest GDE

10,784.6

0.5%

32

Rainforest

106,447.0

4.8%

32a

Rainforest GDE

7,745.0

0.4%

33

Shrubland

11,373.8

0.5%

33a

Shrubland GDE

4,438.9

0.2%

34

Woodland

420,792.8

19.1%

34a

Woodland GDE

88,477.6

4.0%

35

Urban

25,354.3

1.2%

Other (sand, bare rock, unknown)

37,094.5

1.7%

TOTAL

22,044,82

100%

GDE = groundwater-dependent ecosystem

aTotal land area of ’Waterfalls’ and ‘Springs and waterholes’ landscape classes is distorted because of the buffer (0.5 m radius) applied to all of these point features which does not represent true size.

Table 7 Length of stream network represented by stream and river landscape classes across the preliminary assessment extent (PAE) of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class name

Total length

(km)

Percentage of total length

(%)

3

Alluvium, all terrain, tidal river

209.7

0.9%

4

Alluvium, high energy upland, stream or river

1,404.0

6.2%

7

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, river

418.5

1.8%

8

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, stream

2,655.7

11.7%

12

Alluvium, lowland, river

496.2

2.2%

13

Alluvium, lowland, stream

2,056.7

9.1%

14

Consolidated sedimentary, high energy upland or low energy upland or transitional, river

340.2

1.5%

15

Consolidated sedimentary, high energy upland or low energy upland or transitional, stream

9,556.9

42.2%

17

Consolidated sedimentary, lowland, stream

139.5

0.6%

19

Estuarine, all terrain, stream

675.8

3.0%

20

Estuarine, all terrain, tidal river

220.9

1.0%

22

Fractured rock, high energy upland, river

73.1

0.3%

23

Fractured rock, high energy upland, stream

4,065.4

18.0%

24

Fractured rock, lowland or transitional, stream

334.5

1.5%

TOTAL

22,647.6

100%

Figure 30

Figure 30 Distribution of all landscape classes in the preliminary assessment extent (PAE) of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion

(a) the PAE in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion, (b) area surrounding Casino, NSW in the Richmond river basin, and (c) zoomed in area adjacent to Casino, NSW, within the PAE

Names of landscape classes are listed beside the corresponding landscape class number in Table 6 and Table 7.

Data: Bioregional Assessment Programme (Dataset 13)

Figure 31

Figure 31 Distribution of vegetation landscape classes in the preliminary assessment extent (PAE) of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion

(a) the PAE in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion, (b) subset of the PAE near of the Border Ranges, on the NSW–Queensland border, and (c) subset of the PAE in the Wardell-Broadwater area, NSW

Data: Bioregional Assessment Programme (Dataset 13)

2.3.3.1.2 Description of landscape classes

The landscape classes were divided chiefly according to geological properties. Detailed information and conceptual models for geology are reported in the geology section (see Section 2.3.2.2).

2.3.3.1.2.1 Fractured igneous rock

Fractured rock (in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion this is mostly extrusive igneous rock such as basalt) is commonly unsaturated and has a high permeability due to its well-developed fracture network. Water infiltrates through the fractures in the recharge zone, and is stored within, and transmitted through, the fractures and primary pore space towards the edge of basalt flows. Here, it discharges back to the surface as springs and provides baseflow to streams (see Section 2.3.1.1 and Section 2.3.1.2 for more detail). Within this category, there were three landscape classes comprising surface water environments (Table 8).

Table 8 Surface water landscape classes within fractured igneous rock in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class

Definition

22

Fractured rock, high energy upland, river

A steep section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a major channel crosses igneous rock

23

Fractured rock, high energy upland, stream

A steep section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a minor tributary crosses igneous rock

24

Fractured rock, lowland or transitional, stream

A flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a minor tributary crosses igneous rock; may occur in the lowland or between upland and lowland areas

2.3.3.1.2.2 Consolidated sedimentary rock

Consolidated sedimentary rock consists of unsaturated to saturated, low to highly permeable rock that stores and transmits groundwater through the pore space of the rock. Groundwater may be transmitted to hydraulically connected aquifers, or discharged at the surface (Section 2.3.2.2). This category resulted in four landscape classes comprising three flowing water and one still water environment (Table 9).

Table 9 Surface water landscape classes within consolidated sedimentary rock in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class

Definition

14

Consolidated sedimentary, high energy upland or low energy upland or transitional, river

A main channel crossing porous sedimentary rock through flat or steep sections (according to the Stein Index) of basin; exists in upland or between upland and lowland areas

15

Consolidated sedimentary, high energy upland or low energy upland or transitional, stream

Minor tributary crossing porous sedimentary rock through flat or steep sections (according to the Stein Index) of basin; exists in upland or between upland and lowland areas

16

Consolidated sedimentary, lowland or transitional, non-floodplain swamp

A predominantly still water habitat in a flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin not supplied by overbank flooding or directly from main channel on porous sedimentary rock; occurs in lowland and between upland and lowland areas

17

Consolidated sedimentary, lowland, stream

Minor tributary crossing porous sedimentary rock through the low, flat areas (according to the Stein Index) of a basin

2.3.3.1.2.3 Unconsolidated sediments – alluvium

Alluvium consists of unconsolidated sand, clay and gravel surrounding modern-day water channels as well as paleochannels and floodplains. Alluvium has fluctuating levels of saturation as water fills and discharges from the intergranular pore space between the sediments (Section 2.3.2.2). This category contains 12 landscape classes (Table 10).

Table 10 Surface water landscape classes within alluvium in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class

Definition

2

Alluvium, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp

A still water, non-open-water dominated habitat not reliant on overbank flooding or water source from a river or tributary

3

Alluvium, all terrain, tidal river

River downstream of the high tide limit and upstream of the river mouth

4

Alluvium, high energy upland, stream or river

A steep section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a minor tributary or major channel crosses fine-grained sediments

5

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, floodplain

A relatively flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a minor tributary or main channel experiences periodic flooding and lateral movement of water overbank crosses fine-grained sediments; may occur in the upland or between upland and lowland areas

6

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, floodplain lake

A predominantly still water habitat in a flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin which is watered from minor tributary or main channels directly or via periodic flooding and lateral movement of water overbank; crossing fine-grained sediments and may occur in the upland or between upland and lowland areas

7

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, river

A flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a main channel crosses fine-grained sediments; may occur in the upland or between upland and lowland areas

8

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, stream

A flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a minor tributary crosses fine-grained sediments; may occur in the upland or between upland and lowland areas

9

Alluvium, lowland or transitional, floodplain swamp

A predominantly still surface water habitat occurring on a flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin and sourced by overbank flooding or direct flow from the stream-river network; associated with fine-grained sediments and may occur in between upland and lowland areas or in lowlands

10

Alluvium, lowland, floodplain lake

A predominantly still water and open-water habitat in a flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin receiving direct water supply from a minor tributary or the main channel and/or may experience periodic flooding and lateral movement of water overbank; occurs on fine-grained sediments and may exist in the upland or between upland and lowland areas

11

Alluvium, lowland, non-floodplain lake

A predominantly still water and open-water habitat in the flat (according to the Stein Index) lower basin and filled by localised rainfall and/or local rainfall rather than directly via surface water from the stream-river network

12

Alluvium, lowland, river

A flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a main channel crosses fine-grained sediments

13

Alluvium, lowland, stream

A flat section (according to the Stein Index) of basin where a minor tributary crosses fine-grained sediments

The hydrological features of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion, allowing water movement and sediment deposits across the river basins, are associated with the erosional flatness index (Gallant and Dowling, 2003). Floodplains occur in flatter valley bottom areas with minimal relief, which is limited in this bioregion to the alluvium within the immediate vicinity of the rivers and streams. Floodplain lakes and swamps (Figure 32(a)) experience periodic inflow from overbank flows from rivers, as well as outflows. They also experience dry periods, where no flow occurs and the water bodies decrease in size. Non-floodplain swamps (Figure 32(b) and Figure 33) are dependent on groundwater. In dry seasons, recharge of groundwater as well as evaporation and plant transpiration can remove water from these swamps, leaving only refuge pools or even lead to them completely drying up. Plant communities have adapted to these conditions; and fauna either have adapted or leave the area until water returns in the wet/dry cycle of these environments (DSITIA, 2015).

Figure 32

Figure 32 Conceptual models of coastal and subcoastal swamps in the wet season

The first conceptual model (a) depicts a floodplain tree swamp, classified as an ‘Alluvium lowland or transitional floodplain swamp’, with Melaleuca and Eucalypt species. The second conceptual model (b) depicts a non-floodplain wet heath swamp, classified as an ‘Alluvium, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp’.

Data: DSITI (Dataset 12), ‘Coastal and subcoastal floodplain tree swamp–Melaleuca spp. and Eucalyptus spp.’ and ‘Coastal and subcoastal floodplain wet heath swamp’, © The State of Queensland (Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation) 2015

2.3.3.1.2.4 Unconsolidated sediments – estuarine

Estuarine zones represent the interface between freshwater and marine environments. Estuarine sediments consist of unconsolidated sand, clay and gravel, forming saturated estuarine mud flats and coastal swamps in places. Rivers discharge freshwater sediments and nutrients into the estuary and these zones also experience a tidal influence from the sea. This category contains four landscape classes (Table 11).

Table 11 Surface water landscape classes within estuarine zones in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape Class

Definition

18

Estuarine, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp

A predominantly still (but not open) water habitat in a flat section (according to the Stein Index) of the basin downstream of the upper tidal limit and not supplied by overbank flooding or directly from the main channel

19

Estuarine, all terrain, stream

Minor tributary downstream of the upper tidal limit

20

Estuarine, all terrain, tidal river

Main channel downstream of the upper tidal limit down to the river mouth

21

Estuarine, lowland, floodplain lake

A still, open-water habitat downstream of the upper tidal limit, subject to periodic flooding from the estuarine river and streams

Estuarine zones can also be influenced by the presence of accessible groundwater and associated GDEs. Figure 33 shows the estuarine zone interface between the alluvium and marine environments and the movement of groundwater, including terrestrial and surface expression GDEs.

Figure 33

Figure 33 Conceptual model of low-lying coastal swamps with groundwater-dependent ecosystems associated with alluvium and estuarine sediments

GDE = groundwater-dependent ecosystem

Data: DSITI (Dataset 12), ‘Low-lying coastal swamps’, © The State of Queensland (Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation) 2015

2.3.3.1.2.5 Other hydrological landscapes (all geology)

Other hydrological data (non-economic) that did not fit into the above classes were classified separately regardless of geology or terrain. This resulted in three other landscape classes (Table 12).

Table 12 Other surface water landscape classes within Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class

Definition

1

All geology, all terrain, artificial reservoir

A human-made impoundment of river or stream or a human-made off-channel water storage.

25

Waterfalls

For bioregional assessment purposes in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion, a waterfall is a listed asset where a river or stream spills vertically to a lower point in the landscape (typically by at least a few metres).

26

Springs and waterholes

For bioregional assessment purposes in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion, a spring is a listed asset where groundwater becomes expressed as surface water, and a waterhole is a surface water asset that did not intersect with available GeoFabric surface water layers.

2.3.3.1.2.6 Vegetation ecosystems (including associated groundwater-dependent ecosystem)

Terrestrial vegetation was classified under the main vegetation groups. Cleared land was classified according to its land use. GDEs were present in all vegetation classes and were considered a sub-class of each vegetation class. This resulted in eight landscape classes and eight GDE sub-classes (Table 13).

Table 13 Vegetation landscape classes for natural and modified landscapes, including groundwater dependent ecosystems within each vegetation landscape class in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class

Definition

27

Dryland agriculture

Farming area extensively cleared of native vegetation and not irrigated

27a

Dryland agriculture GDE

Farming area extensively cleared of native vegetation, not irrigated but where vegetation is reliant on subsurface water

28

Grassland

Area covered by native grasses, sedges, rushes and ferns

28a

Grassland GDE

Area covered by native grasses relying on subsurface water

29

Irrigated agriculture

Farming area extensively cleared of native vegetation and irrigated

29a

Irrigated agriculture GDE

Farming area extensively cleared of native vegetation, irrigated and where production is also reliant on subsurface water

30

Mangrove

Woody shrub forests growing in the intertidal zone on the coast

30a

Mangrove GDE

Woody shrub forests growing in the intertidal zone, and where subsurface water is fundamental to the long-term survival and function of this habitat

31

Open forest

Eucalypt tall open forest with trees over 30 m tall and a dense understory (wet sclerophyll)

31a

Open forest GDE

Eucalypt tall open forest with trees over 30 m tall and a dense understory and where subsurface water is fundamental to the long-term survival and function of this habitat

32

Rainforest

Forests that grow in high rainfall areas

32a

Rainforest GDE

Forests that grow in high rainfall areas and where subsurface water is fundamental to the function of this habitat

33

Shrubland

Landscape dominated by vegetation shorter than trees and with multiple woody stems originating near the ground

33a

Shrubland GDE

Landscape dominated by vegetation shorter than trees and with multiple woody stems originating near the ground, and where subsurface water is fundamental to the long-term survival and function of this habitat

34

Woodland

Eucalypt forest and woodland with trees ranging from 10 to 30 m in height. Trees whose crowns shade less than 30% of the ground allowing for grass or shrub-dominated understorey; associated with drier soils (dry sclerophyll)

34a

Woodland GDE

Subsurface water is fundamental to the long-term survival and function of these areas where trees have crowns shading less than 30% of the ground on drier soils

The unconsolidated sedimentary environments may include unconfined aquifers, where groundwater moves through inter-granular voids between gravel and sand particles (DSITIA, 2015). GDEs are reliant on this groundwater present at least intermittently in these low-lying coastal environments (Figure 33 and Figure 34).

Figure 34

Figure 34 Conceptual model of lowland alluvium with groundwater-dependent ecosystems associated with alluvium sediments

Data: DSITI (Dataset 12), ‘Alluvia—lower basin’, © The State of Queensland (Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation) 2015

There were other categories that did not fit into the above landscape classes (Table 14). Urban landscapes, including towns, were given a separate class. Areas that could not be classified into an appropriate landscape class were placed in an ‘other’ category. This category is commonly a legacy of the original data layers, where there was insufficient spatial information to classify the area.

Table 14 Other classes that did not fit well into a landscape classification in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class number

Landscape class

Definition

35

Urban

Densely human-populated areas (e.g. cities, towns, suburbs)

Other (sand, bare rock, unknown)

Small areas of land that cannot be easily accounted for in a large-scale, semi-automated GIS-based landscape classification

2.3.3.1.2.7 Summary of landscape classes in the Clarence-Moreton bioregion

The following summary table (Table 15) lists the individual landscape classes with their associated vegetation communities, threatened communities and species, along with the nature of water dependency. It also provides some examples of associated assets within each landscape class. Note that items listed in the associated vegetation communities, threatened species and communities and the assets do not represent a complete list but are only a subset (refer to companion product 1.3 for the Clarence-Moreton bioregion (Murray et. al., 2015) for a full list).

Table 15 Location, associated communities, threatened species and threatened ecological communities, nature of dependency and water regime for the landscape classes of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion


Landscape class

Landscape class number

Location (and associated assets)

Associated communities

Threatened ecological communities, endangered regional ecosystems, threatened aquatic species

Nature of dependency

Water sources and water regime (spatiala, temporalb)

All geology, all terrain, artificial reservoir

1

Widespread in Queensland section of the bioregion; sparsely located in NSW section

(Maroon Dam, Queensland; Emigrant Creek Dam, NSW)

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium

Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Macquaria novemaculeata

Swamp Tea-tree (Melaleuca irbyana) Forest of South-east Queensland Threatened Ecological Community

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Primarily reliant on surface water

Primarily surface water (regional, seasonal), however groundwater may be periodically important

Alluvium, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp

2

Relatively common and widespread in mid to lower Richmond river basin and the lower Clarence river basin; isolated examples in the upper Clarence river basin

Melaleuca spp. and Eucalyptus spp. and/or Lophostemon spp. and/or Banksia spp. and/or Gahnia sieberiana, Xanthorrhoea spp., or Baloskion tetraphyllum, Lepironia articulata etc.

Nannoperca oxleyana

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Reliant on localised rainfall and surface water for inundation; groundwater may or may not be important for inundation

Rainfall and runoff, (localised, temporary) and groundwater (local-regional, intermittent)

Alluvium, all terrain, tidal river

3

The Richmond River downstream of Casino and encompassing major tributaries; also lower Albert and Logan rivers and small parts of the Brisbane River; also at tidal extremity in the Clarence river basin

Top predators include: bullshark Carcharinus leucas and dolphin, Tursiops aduncus; important recreational and commercial species: Mugil cephalus, Acanthopagrus australis, Platycephalus fuscus, Girella tricuspidata, Silago ciliata, Argyrosomus hololepidotus, Pomatomus saltatrix, and prawns (Penaeus spp.)

Casuarina glauca woodland on margins of marine clay plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Surface water discharge via river relative to tidal magnitude determines hydrology and water chemistry (e.g. salinity, sedimentation).

Surface water in the form of main channel discharge

Alluvium, high energy upland, stream or river

4

Widespread and common in the stream network of the bioregion

Anguilla reinhardtii, Galaxias spp.

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Acacia harpophylla open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Surface water key driver during and following major rainfall events; groundwater of increasing relative contribution during extended low flow periods

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, floodplain

5

Canungra Creek river basin within the Albert river basin, Queensland

Anguilla reinhardtii, Galaxias spp.

Dependent on overbank flooding during high rainfall events

Surface water (regional, seasonal)

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, floodplain lake

6

Primarily in the mid to lower Richmond river basin and the lower Clarence river basin; limited distribution in the mid Albert and Logan river basins

Anguilla reinhardtii, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Melanotaenia duboulayi, Rhadinocentrus sp.

Primarily reliant on overbank flooding or surface water filling distributaries

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, river

7

Within the stream network in mid and upper river basins throughout the bioregion

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Maccullochella ikei

Predominantly surface water systems fed by rainfall in uplands with groundwater becoming increasingly important during extended low rainfall periods; Maccullochella ikei movement has connections with flow regime

Surface water a mixture of seasonal rainfall and groundwater supply

Alluvium, low energy upland or transitional, stream

8

Widespread throughout the stream network of the bioregion (except in main channels)

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Galaxias spp., Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus racemosa woodland on remnant Tertiary surfaces Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Maccullochella ikei

Surface and groundwater-dependent systems, the latter being increasingly important during extended low rainfall periods; Maccullochella ikei movement has connections with flow regime

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Alluvium, lowland or transitional, floodplain swamp

9

Widespread in Queensland section of the bioregion

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Melaleuca irbyana low open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus racemosa woodland on remnant Tertiary surfaces Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Primarily surface water dependent, intermittent groundwater dependence may occur

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Alluvium, lowland, floodplain lake

10

Relatively widespread within the mid to lower Richmond river basin and the lower Clarence river basin; few examples from elsewhere in the bioregion

Anguilla reinhardtii, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa,Myxus petardi, Macquaria novemaculeata, Melanotaenia duboulayi, Rhadinocentrus sp.

Nannoperca oxleyana

Primarily surface water dependent, intermittent groundwater dependence may occur

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Alluvium, lowland, non-floodplain lake

11

Primarily mapped in Bremer, Logan river basins in Queensland section of the bioregion

Anguilla reinhardtii, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Melanotaenia duobalayi, Rhadinocentrus sp.

Localised surface water and groundwater dependent; open water environment, no flow and fine-grained sediments promote macrophyte and phytoplankton productivity; important habitat for waterbirds

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Alluvium, lowland, river

12

Major main channel rivers of the bioregion

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata, Gobiomorphus australis, Myxus petardi

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Corymbia intermedia, Eucalyptus tereticornis open forest on remnant Tertiary surfaces, usually near coast. and in deep red soils Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Maccullochella ikei

Permanent surface water in main channel as a function of stream order and deep bed scouring contacting groundwater table in places; important refuge for lowland freshwater species/life stages; primary migratory pathway between stream network and estuary during low and high discharge; open-water, sediment deposition and open canopy habitat facilitates in-stream macrophyte and phytoplankton production

Surface water ultimately a mixture of seasonal rainfall and groundwater supply

Alluvium, lowland, stream

13

Throughout much of the bioregion

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata, Gobiomorphus australis, Myxus petardi

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus populnea woodland on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Nannoperca oxleyana

Ephemeral and permanent sections of streams depending on surface and groundwater supply and riparian cover

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Consolidated sedimentary, high energy upland or low energy upland or transitional, river

14

Throughout much of the bioregion and especially concentrated in upper-mid river basin areas; largely absent from igneous hills and floodplains

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Natural grasslands on basalt and fine-textured alluvial plains of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Mixophyes iteratus

Euastacus gumar

Euastacus sulcatus

Euastacus suttoni

Euastacus pilosus

Maccullochella ikei

Dynamic systems that can shift along a continuum from fast flowing to not flowing as a function of rainfall and groundwater inputs. This dynamic shapes the interactions between several aquatic species including a locally endemic crayfish assemblage. Transitional rivers and boulder-bedrock habitat within pools can serve as key habitat and breeding areas for threatened cod, Maccullochella ikei.

Surface water a mixture of seasonal rainfall and groundwater supply

Consolidated sedimentary, high energy upland or low energy upland or transitional, stream

15

Widespread and common across the bioregion except in the Richmond and Clarence river basin lowlands

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Sub-tropical rainforest GDE

Sub-tropical and warm temperate rainforest GDE

Richmond Range spotted gum-box GDE

Eucalyptus seeana, Corymbia intermedia, Angophora leiocarpa woodland on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Semi-evergreen vine thicket with Brachychiton rupestris on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Melaleuca irbyana low open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Mixophyes iteratus

Euastacus gumar

Euastacus sulcatus

Euastacus suttoni

Euastacus pilosus

Dynamic systems that can shift along a continuum from fast flowing to not flowing to ephemeral streams as a function of rainfall and groundwater inputs; small or large-order streams can remain wetted and even flow due to groundwater. This dynamic shapes the interactions between several aquatic species including a locally endemic crayfish assemblage and including the distribution of the juveniles of large-bodied generalists and smaller-bodied specialist species. Note that hydrology and geology underpin complex relationships including some crayfish species that are in-stream obligates while others are burrowing species nearby but not in the stream.

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Consolidated sedimentary, lowland or transitional, non-floodplain swamp

16

In mid to lower Richmond and Clarence river basins

Wet heath GDE, paperbark GDE, swamp oak GDE

Anguilla reinhardtii, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Melanotaenia duboulayi, Rhadinocentrus sp.

Nannoperca oxleyana

Permanence of these wetlands is variable as a function of surface and groundwater supply, localised transpiration rates and water consumption. Shallow margins are important for aquatic and semi-aquatic fauna and flora (e.g. frogs, sedges).

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Consolidated sedimentary, lowland, stream

17

Widespread in the bioregion in association with main lowland channels or as part of major tributaries of large rivers

Lowland redgum GDE, paperbark/forest red gum GDE, blackbutt-bloodwood GDE

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Eucalyptus seeana, Corymbia intermedia, Angophora leiocarpa woodland on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Maccullochella ikei

Degree of stream permanence highly variable and therefore an important habitat for semi-aquatic fauna and flora (e.g. frogs, sedges)

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Estuarine, all terrain, non-floodplain swamp

18

Confined to the southern coastline of the NSW section of the bioregion from south of the Richmond River to south of the Clarence River

Broadwater National Park GDE, Bundjalung National Park GDE, heath GDE, freshwater wetland GDE, sedgeland/rushland GDE, swamp mahogany GDE, swamp oak GDE, wet heath GDE

Anguilla reinhardtii

Nannoperca oxleyana

These swamps exist in microclimates subject to coastal rainfall and humidity. Salinity is variable and fauna and flora are structured accordingly. Often water is tannin stained and acidic. Habitat for Wallum specialist freshwater species (e.g. Nannoperca oxleyana, Tenuibranchiurus) not associated with or largely absent from large basins.

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Estuarine, all terrain, stream

19

Primarily along the NSW coastline of the bioregion with a few streams recognised in the lower Brisbane and Logan river basins

Blackbutt-bloodwood GDE, dry blackbutt GDE, spotted gum GDE

Anguilla reinhardtii, Macquaria novemaculeata, Mugil spp.

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Nannoperca oxleyana

Streams are supplied by local rainfall and groundwater. Tannin-stained and acidic water in a subset of cases provides habitat for Wallum specialist freshwater species (e.g. Nannoperca oxleyana, Tenuibranchiurus) not associated with or largely absent from large basins.

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Estuarine, all terrain, tidal river

20

Substantial lower river basin areas in the Clarence and Richmond rivers and isolated parts of the Logan and Brisbane rivers overlapping the bioregion

Littoral rainforest GDE, mangrove GDE, paperbark GDE, Swamp Oak GDE

Top predators include: bullshark Carcharinus leucas and dolphin, Tursiops aduncus; important recreational and commercial species: Mugil cephalus, Acanthopagrus australis, Platycephalus fuscus, Girella tricuspidata, Silago ciliata, Argyrosomus hololepidotus, Pomatomus salatrix, and prawns (Penaeus spp.)

Littoral Rainforest and Coastal Vine Thickets of Eastern Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Casuarina glauca woodland on margins of marine clay plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Nannoperca oxleyana

Main channel with hydrology subject to tidal and basin discharge regimes; important area for mangroves and nurseries for early life stages of mobile freshwater and marine fauna

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Estuarine, lowland, floodplain lake

21

Lower Clarence river basin, and immediately to the south in the bioregion

Lowland red gum GDE, paperbark GDE, swamp GDE, swamp oak GDE

Anguilla reinhardtii , Macquaria novemaculeata, Mugil spp.

Subject to overbank flooding in high discharge events and supplied by distributaries and groundwater; largely permanent water systems that function as important nursery areas for mobile marine, freshwater and waterbird assemblages, as a function of still and open-water habitat

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Fractured rock, high energy upland, river

22

Confined to steep high rainfall parts of major river basins on igneous rock (e.g. upper Albert River, Wilsons River, Leycester Creek)

Sub-tropical and warm temperate rainforest GDE, Lophostemon confertus open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks GDE

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Galaxias spp.; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Euastacus sulcatus

Euastacus valentulus

Euastacus mirangudjin

Permanent water in main channels subject to high flow in association with rainfall; low flows maintained at times via groundwater fed streams; upland refugia for aquatic species; core habitat for adult large-bodied crayfish species (e.g. Eustacus sulcatus, E. valentulus) and eels (Anguilla spp.)

Surface water (regional, seasonal) and groundwater (landscape, seasonal/intermittent)

Fractured rock, high energy upland, stream

23

Widespread in upper Bremer, Logan, Albert, Tweed, Richmond and to a lesser extent Clarence river basins

Sub-tropical & warm temperate rainforest GDE, sub-tropical rainforest GDE, Araucarian complex microphyll vine thicket on Cenozoic igneous rocks GDE

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Galaxias spp.; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks especially trachyte Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Semi-evergreen vine thicket with Brachychiton rupestris on Cenozoic igneous rocks, usually in southern half of bioregion Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Euastacus sulcatus

Euastacus valentulus

Euastacus dalagarbe

Euastacus mirangudjin

Euastacus girumulayn

Permanent and ephemeral streams with flow regimes dictated by combinations of surface and groundwater supply; cool, shaded upland rainforest associated streams that support specialist endemic species of crayfish including highly localised species (e.g. Euastacus dalagarbe) and the juveniles of large-bodied generalist species (e.g. Euastacus sulcatus, Euastacus valentulus)

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Fractured rock, lowland or transitional, stream

24

Mostly in the upper Bremer, upper Albert and upper Richmond river basins; also mid Logan, throughout much of Warrill Creek and all northerly tributaries of the Richmond river basin

Wet heath GDE

Fish assemblage: Anguilla reinhardtii, Tandanus tandanus, Retropinna semoni, Hypseleotris compressa, Mugil cephalus, Macquaria novemaculeata; crayfish assemblage: Euastacus spp.

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus pilularis open forest on coastal metamorphics and interbedded volcanics Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks especially trachyte Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Maccullochella ikei

Euastacus sulcatus

Euastacus valentulus

Euastacus mirangudjin

Ephemeral and permanent streams subject to variable discharge as a function of surface and groundwater supply; transitional streams provide habitat or potential habitat for Maccullochella ikei

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Waterfalls

25

Scattered throughout upland areas particularly along the scenic rim; also in the headwaters of the Clarence river basin

On Cenozoic igneous rocks:

complex notophyll vine forest GDE, complex microphyll vine thicket GDE, Eucalyptus saligna or E. grandis tall open forest GDE, montane shrubland GDE, escarpment red gum GDE

Tooloom Falls Area Indigenous site

Periodic or permanent spilling of waterfalls is clearly dependent on surface water and potentially groundwater supply. Migration of certain fauna (e.g. glass eels, freshwater prawns ) up or down waterfalls is dependent on flow regime at these barriers.

Surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Springs and waterholes

26

Alstonville Plateau, Gullyvul Spring, Washpool Spring, Doggies Waterhole, Richmond river basin springs

Lowland red gum GDE, sub-tropical and warm temperate rainforest GDE

Spiny crayfish (Euastacus spp.)

Stygofauna likely but field validation not achieved (Jon Marshall (DSITIA, Queensland Govt), pers. comm.)

Groundwater expressions at springs; waterholes may have either surface or groundwater supply depending on the location. Aquifer expression via springs is a primary feature of first order streams in the north-east Richmond basin but springs are not mapped.

Springs: groundwater; waterholes: surface water supply from seasonal rainfall and/or groundwater supply

Dryland agriculture

27

Widespread in the bioregion largely with the exception of upland areas of the scenic rim and above the Clarence River floodplain

Bailey’s stringybark, Clarence Lowlands spotted gum, Coast Range bloodwood-mahogany, complex notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on sedimentary rocks, dry heathy blackbutt-bloodwood, Eucalyptus eugenioides, Eucalyptus biturbinata, Eucalyptus melliodora open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, Eucalyptus moluccana on sedimentary rocks, Foothill grey gum-ironbark-spotted gum, Northern Ranges dry tallowwood

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Natural grasslands on basalt and fine-textured alluvial plains of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus seeana, Corymbia intermedia, Angophora leiocarpa woodland on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks especially trachyte Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus racemosa woodland on remnant Tertiary surfaces Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall and runoff, (localised, temporary)

Dryland agriculture GDE

27a

Widespread in the bioregion

Bailey’s stringybark, Clarence Lowlands spotted gum, Coast Range bloodwood-mahogany, complex notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on sedimentary rocks, dry heathy blackbutt-bloodwood, Eucalyptus eugenioides, Eucalyptus biturbinata, Eucalyptus melliodora open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, Eucalyptus moluccana on sedimentary rocks, Foothill grey gum-ironbark-spotted gum, heath, inland melaleuca, lowland red gum, paperbark, river oak, sub-tropical and warm temperate rainforest, sedgeland/rushland, swamp mahogany, swamp oak, swamp tea-tree forest and regrowth, wet heath

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Natural grasslands on basalt and fine-textured alluvial plains of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland Threatened Ecological Community

Melaleuca irbyana low open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Acacia harpophylla open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

A subset of the dryland agricultural landscape contains remnant GDEs

Rainfall and runoff, (localised, temporary) and groundwater (local-regional, intermittent)

Grassland

28

Primarily within 10 km along the NSW coastline; also scattered locations further inland in parts of Queensland and NSW in the bioregion

Bailey’s stringybark

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall (local, seasonal)

Grassland GDE

28a

Primarily within 10 km along the NSW coastline; also scattered locations further inland in parts of Qld and NSW in the CLM

Broadwater National Park

Freshwater wetland, heath, lowland red gum, paperbark, sedgeland/rushland, swamp, wet heath

A subset of the dryland agricultural landscape contains remnant GDEs

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and groundwater supply

Irrigated agriculture

29

Throughout the Bremer, Logan and Albert river basins, including the Warrill Creek river basin; along much of the Richmond River; also on the Alstonville plateau and in the Clarence River basin

Lowlands grey box

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Water extracted from surface or groundwater for agriculture

Groundwater or surface water extraction

Irrigated agriculture GDE

29a

Throughout the Bremer, Logan and Albert river basins, including the Warrill Creek river basin; localised parts of the NSW section of the bioregion

Lowland red gum, river oak, wet heath

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Remnant native habitat and potentially important localised water source for irrigators, mobile native animals and live stock during dry periods

Groundwater

Mangrove

30

Highly localised at the mouths of the Brisbane, Richmond and Clarence rivers, and in a few additional coastal locations in NSW

Mangrove, mangrove shrubland to low closed forest on marine clay plains and estuaries;

important nursery habitat and tidal foraging ground for riverine and estuary fish and crustacean assemblages

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Essentially a marine environment, experiences variable salinity as a function of basin runoff and discharge

Rainfall (local, seasonal)

Mangrove GDE

30a

Highly localised at the mouths of the Brisbane, Richmond and Clarence rivers, and in a few additional coastal locations in NSW; differences in Mangrove and Mangrove GDE distribution occur at fine spatial resolution

Mangrove, paperbark, swamp oak

Freshwater expression via groundwater in isolated areas surrounded by otherwise an essentially marine environment; experiences variable salinity as a function of basin runoff and discharge

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and groundwater

Open forest

31

Widespread in NSW according to available data, except on Richmond and Clarence river floodplains; also concentrated in Queensland along NSW– Queensland border, and upper Bremer river basin

Araucarian complex microphyll vine forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, Bailey’s stringybark, blackbutt-bloodwood/apple (inland), Clarence Lowlands spotted gum, Coast Range bloodwood-mahogany, coastal grey box-forest red gum, coastal sands blackbutt, complex notophyll vine forest, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on sedimentary rocks, Eucalyptus dunnii tall open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus saligna tall open forest on most multiple geologies, spotted gum -ironbark-grey box communities

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Natural grasslands on basalt and fine-textured alluvial plains of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall (local, seasonal)

Open forest GDE

31a

Primarily south of the Richmond River to the southern limit of the bioregion.

Also heavily concentrated in Queensland along the NSW–Queensland border

blackbutt-bloodwood/apple Clarence Lowlands spotted gum, Coast Range bloodwood-mahogany, coastal sands blackbutt, Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland to open forest on alluvial plains, forest red gum, lowland red gum, paperbark, swamp mahogany, swamp oak

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Potentially important localised water source for mobile native animals and live stock during dry periods

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and groundwater

Rainforest

32

Much of the scenic Rim including the upper Logan, Albert, Tweed, Richmond and Clarence river basins; also parts of Warrill Creek (Queensland) and Orara River Valley (NSW)

Araucarian complex microphyll and notophyll vine forest or Eucalyptus saligna or E. grandis tall open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, Northern Ranges dry tallowwood

Littoral Rainforest and Coastal Vine Thickets of Eastern Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Semi-evergreen vine thicket with Brachychiton rupestris on multiple geologies Endangered Regional Ecosystems

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall (local, seasonal)

Rainforest GDE

32a

Essentially all of the rainforest mapped in the Queensland section of the bioregion; contrasting the sparse and scattered subset of localities for rainforest in the NSW section

Littoral rainforest

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Littoral Rainforest and Coastal Vine Thickets of Eastern Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Gallery rainforest (notophyll vine forest) on alluvial plains Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and groundwater

Shrubland

33

Primarily along the near coast of the NSW section of the bioregion; and in the upper river basins of the Queensland section of the bioregion in river basins from the Bremer to the Tweed; sparsely distributed elsewhere in the bioregion

Coastal complex, Bailey’s stringybark

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks especially trachyte Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall (local, seasonal)

Shrubland GDE

33a

Primarily along the near coast of the NSW section of the bioregion; and in the upper river basins of the Queensland section of the bioregion in river basins from the Bremer to the Albert

Heath, paperbark, sedgeland/rushland, swamp mahogany, swamp oak, wallum heath, wet heath

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and groundwater

Woodland

34

Widespread in the bioregion; absent from certain parts of the lower Richmond and Clarence river basins

Bailey’s stringybark, spotted gum communities, Coast Range bloodwood-mahogany, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on sedimentary rocks, dry blackbutt, spotted gum, blackbutt-bloodwood, red gum, Eucalyptus crebra woodland, Eucalyptus eugenioides, Eucalyptus biturbinata, Eucalyptus melliodora open forest or Eucalyptus moluccana on sedimentary rocks, grey gum-ironbark-spotted gum, scribbly gum, ironbark/bloodwood communities, Lophostemon confertus open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks, northern open grassy blackbutt, dry tallowwood, rough-barked apples, needlebark stringybark, spotted gum-ironbark/grey gum, stringybark-bloodwood

Swamp tea-tree forest of South-east Queensland threatened ecological community; Marsdenia coronata (Vulnerable under Nature Conservation Act, Queensland)

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Natural grasslands on basalt and fine-textured alluvial plains of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland Threatened Ecological Community

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks especially trachyte Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus racemosa woodland on remnant Tertiary surfaces Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus seeana, Corymbia intermedia, Angophora leiocarpa woodland on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall (local, seasonal)

Woodland GDE

34a

Widespread in Queensland section of the bioregion; in the lowlands between the Richmond and Clarence river and along the coastally south of Lennox Heads

Baileys stringybark, spotted gum, coastal range bloodwood-mahogany, coastal swamp box, blackbutt-bloodwood, grey gum-ironbark-spotted gum, grey gum-grey ironbark-white mahogany/(forest red gum), heath, scribbly gum, melaleuca, ironbark/bloodwood communities, lowland red gum and grey box, northern open grassy blackbutt, paperbark, swamp mahogany, swamp oak, wet heath

Swamp tea-tree forest of South-east Queensland threatened ecological community; Marsdenia coronata (Vulnerable under Nature Conservation Act, Queensland)

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Acacia harpophylla open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Araucarian microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata open forest on Cenozoic igneous rocks especially trachyte Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus seeana, Corymbia intermedia, Angophora leiocarpa woodland on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland on Quaternary alluvium Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Melaleuca irbyana low open forest on sedimentary rocks Endangered Regional Ecosystem

Surface and/or groundwater-dependent systems embedded within non-surface-water-dependent landscapes

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and groundwater

Urban

35

Much of lower Brisbane river basin (e.g. Brisbane, Ipswich) including the lower Bremer represent heavily urbanised areas; smaller urban settings include townships of Grafton, Casino, and Ballina in the NSW section of the bioregion

Lowland Rainforest of Subtropical Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Littoral Rainforest and Coastal Vine Thickets of Eastern Australia Threatened Ecological Community

Densely populated human areas rely on water extraction primarily from reservoirs and potentially from groundwater supply.

Heavily modified hydrology dependent largely contingent on large-scale water storage and/or direct surface water extraction

Other (sand, bare rock, unknown)

Sparsely distributed in the bioregion, and associated with the edge of the bioregion as a function of the interface between river basins (i.e. bare rock on pinnacles) and land and ocean (i.e. sand)

White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland Threatened Ecological Community

Primarily a non-surface-water-dependent landscape class

Rainfall (local, seasonal) and unknown

aSpatial scale refers to the flow system and its predominant pattern at local (100 to 104 m2), landscape (104 to 108 m2) or regional (108 to 1010 m2) scales in last column.

bTemporal scale of the water regime refers to the timing and frequency of the reliance on a particular water source in last column.

GDE = groundwater-dependent ecosystem

Data: Bioregional Assessment Programme (Dataset 11)

Last updated:
11 July 2017
Thumbnail images of the Clarence-Moreton bioregion

Product Finalisation date

19 January 2017